Environmental studies deals with the sum of all social, economical, biological, physical and chemical interrelations with our surroundings. In this article the focus will be on environmental chemistry. Environmental chemistry. Environmental chemistry deals with the study of the origin, transport, reaction, effects and fates of chemical species in the environment. Let’s discuss some important aspects of environmental chemistry through this article
- Environmental Pollution
Environmental pollution is defined as any undesirable change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of air, land and water. Pollution can be natural as well as man-made. The agents or substances that cause pollution are known as pollutants.
Environmental problem is known to exist in developed as well as developing countries and the problem is gradually growing day by day since the onset of industrial revolution. Population explosion and urbanization have made excess use of natural resources and natural wealth and have resulted in nature’s dreadful conditions.
The developments and the technical progress in the Industrial revolution have led to increased harmful effects by pollution on the surroundings. The discovery of oil and its universal use all through the country is a noted fact that natural resources have been stored practically unharmed in the earth’s crust from decades ago.
- Atmospheric pollution
The atmosphere that surrounds the earth is not of the same thickness at all heights. There are concentric layers of air or region and each layer has different density. The lowest region of atmosphere in which the human beings along with other in which the human beings along with other organism live is called troposphere. It extends up to the heights of ~ 10 km from sea level. Above the troposphere, between 10 and 50 km above sea level lies stratosphere. Troposphere is a turbulent, dusty zone containing air, much water vapor and clouds. This is the region of strong air movement and cloud formation. The stratosphere, on the other hand, contains dinitrogen, dioxide, zone and little water vapors.
Atmospheric pollution is generally studied as troposphere and stratospheric pollution. The presence of ozone in the stratosphere prevents about 99.5 per cent of the sun’s harmful UV radiations from researching humans and earth’s surface and thereby protecting humans and other animals from its effect.
- Chemical pollution
As the human population is fast increasing, the human race has become more developed, and chemical wastes have increased dangerously growing each day at high levels in some areas. The ocean, can reduce the effect on some chemical wastes however, as the amounts of chemicals add to, toxins begin to mount up.
Chemical pollution originates from industrial areas as well as anywhere where there are people. Some marine organisms come in contact with these harmful toxins, and these toxins unfavorably affect the marine life and there is a slowdown in terms of their population
- Noise pollution
Noise pollution is a category of energy pollution in which off-putting, infuriating, or harmful sounds are without restraint capable of being heard. As with other forms of energy pollution such as heat and light pollution, noise pollution contaminants are not substantial particles, but to a certain extent waves that get in the way with naturally-occurring waves of similar type in the same surroundings. Thus, the explanation of noise pollution is open to dispute, and there is no clear boundary as to which sounds may add up to noise pollution.
In the narrowest common sense, sounds are well thought-out noise pollution if they unfavorably have an effect on natural world, human activity, or are competent of destructive physical structures on a customary, repeating starting point. In the broadest sense of the expression, a sound may be painstaking noise pollution if it disturbs any ordinary course of action or causes human harm, even if the sound does not take place on a habitual basis. Prolonged introduction to noise levels higher than eighty-five decibels can damage inner ear cells and show the way to hearing loss
- Soil pollution
Soil pollution comprises the toxic waste of soils with resources, mostly chemicals that are out of place or are present at concentrations advanced than normal which may have unpleasant effects on humans or other organisms. However, soil pollution is also caused by resources other than the undeviating addition of man-made chemicals such as undeveloped runoff waters, industrial waste materials, acidic precipitates, and radioactive clash
Both organic and inorganic contaminants are imperative in soil. Soil pollution is caused by the presence of synthetic chemicals or other modification in the natural soil background. This type of contamination normally arises from the split of underground storage links, use of pesticides, and percolation of polluted surface water to subsurface strata, oil and fuel dumping, leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy metals. This episode of this incident is linked with the degree of industrialization and intensities of chemical treatment.
- Water pollution
In addition to clean air, all living organisms, animals and plants call for a clean water supply in order to continue to exist. We may think that we contain lots of water but merely a small amount of it is fresh water that we can use and day by day we are polluting our water in the same way we are polluting our air.
When harmful substances such as oil and chemical wastes come in the waterways either through accidents or through being deliberately dumped, they are soon carried away by tides or the flow of the river and are really not easy to remove. As a river makes its way to the ocean, a number of different chemicals can enter its waters. Harmful chemicals can enter our rivers and lakes from any number of sources. For example they can dribble out of dumpsites or pesticides and fertilizers or may draw off from farmlands or they may find their way into manure that is pumped from local towns and cities.