When I try to define ‘living’, I conventionally look for distinctive
characteristics exhibited by living organisms. Growth, reproduction, ability
to sense environment and mount a suitable response come to our mind
immediately as unique features of living organisms. One can add a few
more features like metabolism, ability to self-replicate, self-organise,
interact and emergence to this list. Let us try to understand each of these.
All living organisms grow. Increase in mass and increase in number
of individuals are twin characteristics of growth. A multicellular organism
grows by cell division. In plants, this growth by cell division occurs
continuously throughout their life span. In animals, this growth is seen
only up to a certain age. However, cell division occurs in certain tissues to
replace lost cells. Unicellular organisms also grow by cell division. One
can easily observe this in in vitro cultures by simply counting the number
of cells under the microscope. In majority of higher animals and plants,
growth and reproduction are mutually exclusive events. One must
remember that increase in body mass is considered as growth. Non-living
objects also grow if we take increase in body mass as a criterion for growth.
Mountains, boulders and sand mounds do grow. However, this kind of
growth exhibited by non-living objects is by accumulation of material on
the surface. In living organisms, growth is from inside. Growth, therefore,
cannot be taken as a defining property of living organisms. Conditions
under which it can be observed in all living organisms have to be explained
and then we understand that it is a characteristic of living systems. A
dead organism does not grow.
Reproduction, likewise, is a characteristic of living organisms.
In multicellular organisms, reproduction refers to the production of
progeny possessing features more or less similar to those of parents.
Invariably and implicitly we refer to sexual reproduction. Organisms
reproduce by asexual means also. Fungi multiply and spread easily due
to the millions of asexual spores they produce. In lower organisms like
yeast and hydra, we observe budding. In Planaria (flat worms), we observe
true regeneration, i.e., a fragmented organism regenerates the lost part of
its body and becomes, a new organism. The fungi, the filamentous algae,
the protonema of mosses, all easily multiply by fragmentation. When it
comes to unicellular organisms like bacteria, unicellular algae or Amoeba,
reproduction is synonymous with growth, i.e., increase in number of cells.
We have already defined growth as equivalent to increase in cell number
or mass. Hence, we notice that in single-celled organisms, we are not very
clear about the usage of these two terms – growth and reproduction.
Further, there are many organisms which do not reproduce (mules, sterile
worker bees, infertile human couples, etc). Hence, reproduction also cannot
be an all-inclusive defining characteristic of living organisms. Of course,
no non-living object is capable of reproducing or replicating by itself.
Another characteristic of life is metabolism. All living organisms
are made of chemicals. These chemicals, small and big, belonging to
various classes, sizes, functions, etc., are constantly being made and
changed into some other biomolecules. These conversions are chemical
reactions or metabolic reactions. There are thousands of metabolic
reactions occurring simultaneously inside all living organisms, be they
unicellular or multicellular. All plants, animals, fungi and microbes exhibit
metabolism. The sum total of all the chemical reactions occurring in our
body is metabolism. No non-living object exhibits metabolism. Metabolic
reactions can be demonstrated outside the body in cell-free systems. An
isolated metabolic reaction(s) outside the body of an organism, performed
in a test tube is neither living nor non-living. Hence, while metabolism is
a defining feature of all living organisms without exception, isolated
metabolic reactions in vitro are not living things but surely living reactions.
Hence, cellular organisation of the body is the defining feature of
life forms.
Perhaps, the most obvious and technically complicated feature of all
living organisms is this ability to sense their surroundings or environment
and respond to these environmental stimuli which could be physical,
chemical or biological. We sense our environment through our sense
organs. Plants respond to external factors like light, water, temperature,
other organisms, pollutants, etc. All organisms, from the prokaryotes to
the most complex eukaryotes can sense and respond to environmental
cues. Photoperiod affects reproduction in seasonal breeders, both plants
and animals. All organisms handle chemicals entering their bodies. All
organisms therefore, are ‘aware’ of their surroundings. Human being is
the only organism who is aware of himself, i.e., has self-consciousness.
Consciousness therefore, becomes the defining property of living
When it comes to human beings, it is all the more difficult to define
the living state. We observe patients lying in coma in hospitals virtually
supported by machines which replace heart and lungs. The patient is
otherwise brain-dead. The patient has no self-consciousness. Are such
patients who never come back to normal life, living or non-living?
In higher classes, you will come to know that all living phenomena
are due to underlying interactions. Properties of tissues are not present
in the constituent cells but arise as a result of interactions among the
constituent cells. Similarly, properties of cellular organelles are not present
in the molecular constituents of the organelle but arise as a result of
interactions among the molecular components comprising the organelle.
These interactions result in emergent properties at a higher level of
organisation. This phenomenon is true in the hierarchy of organisational
complexity at all levels. Therefore, we can say that living organisms are
self-replicating, evolving and self-regulating interactive systems capable
of responding to external stimuli. Biology is the story of life on earth.
Biology is the story of evolution of living organisms on earth. All living
organisms – present, past and future, are linked to one another by the
sharing of the common genetic material, but to varying degrees.


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