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The Higgs boson is a hypothetical massive elementary particle that is predicted to exist by the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. The Higgs boson is an integral part of the theoretical Higgs mechanism. If shown to exist, it would help explain why other elementary particles have mass. It is the only elementary particle predicted by the Standard Model that has not yet been observed in particle physics experiments. Theories that do not need the Higgs boson also exist and would be considered if the existence of the Higgs boson were ruled out. They are described as Higgsless models.
If shown to exist, the Higgs mechanism would explain why the W and Z bosons, which mediate weak interactions, are massive whereas the related photon, which mediates electromagnetism, is massless. The Higgs boson is expected to be in a class of particles known as scalar bosons. (Bosons are particles with integer spin, and scalar bosons have spin 0.)
Experiments attempting to find the particle are currently being performed using the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, and were performed at Fermilab’s Tevatron until its closure in late 2011. Some theories suggest that any mechanism capable of generating the masses of elementary particles must become visible at energies above 1.4 TeV; therefore, the LHC (colliding two 3.5 TeV beams) is expected to be able to provide experimental evidence of the existence or non-existence of the Higgs boson.
On 12 December 2011, the ATLAS collaboration at the LHC found that a Higgs mass in the range from 145 to 206 GeV/c2 was excluded at the 95% confidence level. On 13 December 2011, experimental results were announced from the ATLAS and CMS experiments, indicating that if the Higgs boson exists, its mass is limited to the range 116–130 GeV (ATLAS) or 115–127 GeV (CMS), with other masses excluded at 95% confidence level. Observed excesses of events at around 124 GeV (CMS) and 125-6 GeV (ATLAS) are consistent with the presence of a Higgs boson signal, but also consistent with fluctuations in the background. The global statistical significances of the excesses are 1.9 sigma (CMS) and 2.6 sigma (ATLAS) after correction for the look elsewhere effect. As of 13 December 2011, a combined result is not available.
The God particle
The Higgs boson is often referred to as “the God particle” by the media, after the title of Leon Lederman’s book, The God Particle: If the Universe Is the Answer, What Is the Question? Lederman initially wanted to call Higgs boson “the goddamn particle” because “nobody could find the thing.But his editor would not let him. While use of this term may have contributed to increased media interest in particle physics and the Large Hadron Collider, many scientists dislike it, since it overstates the particle’s importance, not least since its discovery would still leave unanswered questions about the unification of QCD, the electroweak interaction and gravity, and the ultimate origin of the universe. A renaming competition conducted by the science correspondent for the British Guardian newspaper chose the name “the champagne bottle boson” as the best from among their submissions: “The bottom of a champagne bottle is in the shape of the Higgs potential and is often used as an illustration in physics lectures. So it’s not an embarrassingly grandiose name, it is memorable, and it has some physics connection too.
boson and india-Higgs boson have an Indian relation.It got the name “boson” because of the great Indian scientist Mr.Sathyendranath boss.
When the number of molecules leaving the liquid to vapour equals the number of
molecules returning to the liquid from vapour, equilibrium is said to be attained and is
dynamic in nature. Equilibrium can be established for both physical and chemical
processes and at this stage rate of forward and reverse reactions are equal. Equilibrium
constant, Kc is expressed as the concentration of products divided by reactants, each
term raised to the stoichiometric coefficient.
For reaction, a A + b B ƒ c C +d D
Kc = [C]c[D]d/[A]a[B]b
Equilibrium constant has constant value at a fixed temperature and at this stage
all the macroscopic properties such as concentration, pressure, etc. become constant.
For a gaseous reaction equilibrium constant is expressed as Kp and is written by replacing
concentration terms by partial pressures in Kc expression. The direction of reaction can
be predicted by reaction quotient Qc which is equal to Kc at equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s
principle states that the change in any factor such as temperature, pressure,
concentration, etc. will cause the equilibrium to shift in such a direction so as to reduce
or counteract the effect of the change. It can be used to study the effect of various
factors such as temperature, concentration, pressure, catalyst and inert gases on the
direction of equilibrium and to control the yield of products by controlling these factors.
Catalyst does not effect the equilibrium composition of a reaction mixture but increases
the rate of chemical reaction by making available a new lower energy pathway for
conversion of reactants to products and vice-versa.
All substances that conduct electricity in aqueous solutions are called electrolytes.
Acids, bases and salts are electrolytes and the conduction of electricity by their aqueous
solutions is due to anions and cations produced by the dissociation or ionization of
electrolytes in aqueous solution. The strong electrolytes are completely dissociated. In
weak electrolytes there is equilibrium between the ions and the unionized electrolyte
molecules. According to Arrhenius, acids give hydrogen ions while bases produce
hydroxyl ions in their aqueous solutions. Brönsted-Lowry on the other hand, defined
an acid as a proton donor and a base as a proton acceptor. When a Brönsted-Lowry
acid reacts with a base, it produces its conjugate base and a conjugate acid corresponding
to the base with which it reacts. Thus a conjugate pair of acid-base differs only by one
proton. Lewis further generalised the definition of an acid as an electron pair acceptor
and a base as an electron pair donor. The expressions for ionization (equilibrium)
constants of weak acids (Ka) and weak bases (Kb) are developed using Arrhenius definition.
The degree of ionization and its dependence on concentration and common ion are
discussed. The pH scale (pH = -log[H+]) for the hydrogen ion concentration (activity) has
been introduced and extended to other quantities (pOH = – log[OH–]) ; pKa = –log[Ka] ;
pKb = –log[Kb]; and pKw = –log[Kw] etc.). The ionization of water has been considered and
we note that the equation: pH + pOH = pKw is always satisfied. The salts of strong acid
and weak base, weak acid and strong base, and weak acid and weak base undergo
hydrolysis in aqueous solution.The definition of buffer solutions, and their importance
are discussed briefly. The solubility equilibrium of sparingly soluble salts is discussed
and the equilibrium constant is introduced as solubility product constant (Ksp). Its
relationship with solubility of the salt is established. The conditions of precipitation of
the salt from their solutions or their dissolution in water are worked out. The role of
common ion and the solubility of sparingly soluble salts is also discussed.
Good Source of Energy:
Good source of energy should have following qualities:
1. Optimum heat production per unit of volume/mass used
2. Easy to transport
3. Least Polluting
Earlier coal was used to run trains, but given its bulk it was difficult to transport. Hence now world over trains are run on either diesel or electricity. This example shows how petroleum is better against coal on all the above parameters.
Conventional Sources of Energy
Fossil Fuel: Plants and animals which were buried under the earth millions of years ago, have transformed into petroleum because of high heat and high pressure in the inner layers of earth. As petroleum is made from fossilized plants and animals that is why this is called as fossil fuel. Petroleum is refined into huge refineries to produce various fuels like petrol and diesel. Petroleum requires low temperature to catch fire, is easy to transport and is affordable to the masses. Hence, it is one of the widely used fuel. Coal is also made of plant fossils. Nowadays coal is primarily used in thermal power plants to generate electricity.
Hydro-energy: Water is very powerful. Its power is harnessed by building dams, where water’s potential energy is used to run dynamo to produce electrical energy.
Steam: Coal is used to heat water to generate steam. Earlier steam’s power was used to run train engines. At present steam is used to run dynamo to produce electricity.
Bio-Mass: Cow dung and plant residues are left to decompose in a huge tank. The decomposition results in production of methane gas, which is used as fuel.
Nuclear Energy: Fission of an atom creates huge amount of energy. This property is used to produce energy in nuclear power plants.
Risks and Ecological Problems of Conventional Energy:
1. Fossil fuel is also called as non-renewable energy resource. Fossil take millions of years to get converted into energy source. The speed at which humankind is using these resources, will extinguish all fossil fuel sources on earth. Moreover, they produce CO2 and other pollutants which are harmful for our environment.
2. Most of the major rivers are past their prime, so their water reservoir is about to finish. High dams often cause massive earthquakes.
3. Nuclear power plants always carry the risk of leaking harmful radiation into the environment.
Non-Conventional or Renewable Energy Resources:
Risks associated with conventional energy sources have forced scientists world over to think of finding non-polluting and renewable energy sources. Some of them are as follows:
Wind Energy: Wind’s power is being used to run windmills to produce energy. They are non-polluting and wind cannot be finished.
Solar Energy: Sun is the main source of energy for all life forms on this earth. Solar panels are being used to trap sun’s heat energy to convert it into electrical energy. At present they are very costly, but further research will make solar energy affordable in near future.
Bio-Diesel: Some wild plants like Jathropa is now being cultivated to produce oil, which is being used as bio-diesel. Drawback of this is the fear of agricultural land being shifted for Jathropa plantations. This is now being blamed for rising food prices around the world.
Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Hydrogen is available in abundance in the environment. When hydrogen is combined with oxygen, energy is produce and the byproduct of such reaction is water. Research is going on for this source of energy on a large scale. This will be the safest, since the byproduct water is non-polluting for environment.
Tidal Energy: Tides come with great force. In some countries dams are built and dynamo is placed near small opening in the dam. When tide comes it helps turn the dynamo, which in turn produces electrical energy.
Wave Energy: High hollow tubes are built near seashore. When a wave comes, it pushes the air up inside the tube with great force. This air helps run the dynamo.
Geothermic Energy: Inside of earth is filled with molten lava, which turns underground water into vapour. In certain countries turbines are placed strategically to harness the energy of steam from underground water reservoir.
Most of the renewable energy resources are still in experimental stage. Wind energy is somewhat developed compared to others. Hopefully all these research will bring great relief to the mankind.
The simple fact is that chemistry plays an important role in every person’s daily activities from the moment we’re born. So whatroledoeschemistry really
play in everyday life? Well, this involvement usually begins first thing each
morning. Most people wake up to an alarm or radio. These common household items
contain batteries, which make them very chemically dependent. These batteries
contain positive and negative electrodes. The positive electrode consists of a
carbon rod surrounded by a mixture of carbon and manganese dioxide. The negative
electrode is made of zinc. Chemistry plays an important role in the discovery
and understanding of materials contained in these and many other common
household items. Things like household cleaners and water
purification systems are vitally dependent on chemistry. Without chemistry
something as simple as scrubbing a toilet without fear of severe burns or small
explosions might not be possible.
Next, though it isn’t widely known,
chemistry is also heavily involved with the manufacturing of things such as
makeup and soap. Each time you bathe you are witnessing chemistry at work.
Chemicals such as cetyl alcohol and propylene glycol are typical ingredients in
the soap used to wash your hair and skin. Without chemistry, these materials (or
combinations of these materials) might be hazardous or might not exist. The
chemical coloring agents used in makeup and nail polish would not be possible
without an understanding of the chemicals involved.
Almost anything you do
during the course of a normal day involves chemistry in some way. The gas and
tires in cars we drive, the makeup we put on our faces, the soaps and cleaners
used everyday, burning wood or other fossil fuels, chemistry is all around you
each and every day. The associations are practically limitless. So, as you go
about your daily activities, remember to thank chemistry. As my teacher always
says, remember, “CHEMISTRY IS LIFE!”
Environmental studies deals with the sum of all social, economical, biological, physical and chemical interrelations with our surroundings. In this article the focus will be on environmental chemistry. Environmental chemistry. Environmental chemistry deals with the study of the origin, transport, reaction, effects and fates of chemical species in the environment. Let’s discuss some important aspects of environmental chemistry through this article
- Environmental Pollution
Environmental pollution is defined as any undesirable change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of air, land and water. Pollution can be natural as well as man-made. The agents or substances that cause pollution are known as pollutants.
Environmental problem is known to exist in developed as well as developing countries and the problem is gradually growing day by day since the onset of industrial revolution. Population explosion and urbanization have made excess use of natural resources and natural wealth and have resulted in nature’s dreadful conditions.
The developments and the technical progress in the Industrial revolution have led to increased harmful effects by pollution on the surroundings. The discovery of oil and its universal use all through the country is a noted fact that natural resources have been stored practically unharmed in the earth’s crust from decades ago.
- Atmospheric pollution
The atmosphere that surrounds the earth is not of the same thickness at all heights. There are concentric layers of air or region and each layer has different density. The lowest region of atmosphere in which the human beings along with other in which the human beings along with other organism live is called troposphere. It extends up to the heights of ~ 10 km from sea level. Above the troposphere, between 10 and 50 km above sea level lies stratosphere. Troposphere is a turbulent, dusty zone containing air, much water vapor and clouds. This is the region of strong air movement and cloud formation. The stratosphere, on the other hand, contains dinitrogen, dioxide, zone and little water vapors.
Atmospheric pollution is generally studied as troposphere and stratospheric pollution. The presence of ozone in the stratosphere prevents about 99.5 per cent of the sun’s harmful UV radiations from researching humans and earth’s surface and thereby protecting humans and other animals from its effect.
- Chemical pollution
As the human population is fast increasing, the human race has become more developed, and chemical wastes have increased dangerously growing each day at high levels in some areas. The ocean, can reduce the effect on some chemical wastes however, as the amounts of chemicals add to, toxins begin to mount up.
Chemical pollution originates from industrial areas as well as anywhere where there are people. Some marine organisms come in contact with these harmful toxins, and these toxins unfavorably affect the marine life and there is a slowdown in terms of their population
- Noise pollution
Noise pollution is a category of energy pollution in which off-putting, infuriating, or harmful sounds are without restraint capable of being heard. As with other forms of energy pollution such as heat and light pollution, noise pollution contaminants are not substantial particles, but to a certain extent waves that get in the way with naturally-occurring waves of similar type in the same surroundings. Thus, the explanation of noise pollution is open to dispute, and there is no clear boundary as to which sounds may add up to noise pollution.
In the narrowest common sense, sounds are well thought-out noise pollution if they unfavorably have an effect on natural world, human activity, or are competent of destructive physical structures on a customary, repeating starting point. In the broadest sense of the expression, a sound may be painstaking noise pollution if it disturbs any ordinary course of action or causes human harm, even if the sound does not take place on a habitual basis. Prolonged introduction to noise levels higher than eighty-five decibels can damage inner ear cells and show the way to hearing loss
- Soil pollution
Soil pollution comprises the toxic waste of soils with resources, mostly chemicals that are out of place or are present at concentrations advanced than normal which may have unpleasant effects on humans or other organisms. However, soil pollution is also caused by resources other than the undeviating addition of man-made chemicals such as undeveloped runoff waters, industrial waste materials, acidic precipitates, and radioactive clash
Both organic and inorganic contaminants are imperative in soil. Soil pollution is caused by the presence of synthetic chemicals or other modification in the natural soil background. This type of contamination normally arises from the split of underground storage links, use of pesticides, and percolation of polluted surface water to subsurface strata, oil and fuel dumping, leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy metals. This episode of this incident is linked with the degree of industrialization and intensities of chemical treatment.
- Water pollution
In addition to clean air, all living organisms, animals and plants call for a clean water supply in order to continue to exist. We may think that we contain lots of water but merely a small amount of it is fresh water that we can use and day by day we are polluting our water in the same way we are polluting our air.
When harmful substances such as oil and chemical wastes come in the waterways either through accidents or through being deliberately dumped, they are soon carried away by tides or the flow of the river and are really not easy to remove. As a river makes its way to the ocean, a number of different chemicals can enter its waters. Harmful chemicals can enter our rivers and lakes from any number of sources. For example they can dribble out of dumpsites or pesticides and fertilizers or may draw off from farmlands or they may find their way into manure that is pumped from local towns and cities.
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The combination of elements to form compounds is governed by
the following five basic laws.
(i) Law of conservation of mass
(ii) Law of definite proportion
(iii) Law of multiple proportion
(iv) Gay Lussac’s law of Gaseous volume
(v) Avogadro’s law
- Law of conservation of mass: In all physical and chemical changes, the
total mass of the reactants is equal to that of the products. OR Matters can neither
be created or nor be destroyed
Law of define proportion: The law states that a chemical compound always
consists of the same elements combined together in the same fixed proportion by
Law of multiple proportions: When two
elements combine to form two or more than two compound, then the weights of the
elements which combine with the fixed weight of the other, bear a simple ratio
to one another.
Gay Lussac’s law of Gaseous volume: It states that when gases combine to form
gaseous product, their volume will be in a simple whole number ratio between
the volumes of reactants and product at a constant temperature and pressure.
Avogadro’s law: It states that equal volumes
of all gases under same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of
Anything which has mass and occupies space is called matter.
Everything around us, for example, book, pen, pencil, water, air, all living
beings etc are composed of matter. Matters can be exists in three physical
states. They are Solid, Liquid, and Gas.
(i) Solid have definite volume and definite shape
(ii) Liquids have definite volume but they don’t have
a definite shape. They take the shape of the container in which they are placed
(iii) Gases have neither definite volume nor definite
shape. They completely occupies the shape of the container in which they are
These three states of matter can be interconvertible by changing the
conditions of temperature and pressure.
On heating solid usually changes to liquid and the liquid on further
heating changes to gaseous stage or vapor. In the reverse process a gas can be liquefied
by cooling it and liquid on further cooling freezes to the liquid stage.
Matters can be classified as mixtures and pure substances. Mixtures can be both
homogeneous as well as heterogeneous. Milk, air are examples of homogeneous
mixtures. They are uniform throughout. If they are not having uniform
composition, they are heterogeneous mixture. Iron and sand is an example of
heterogeneous mixtures. Elements like Cu, Ag and compounds like Nacl, AgNO₃ constitute
pure substance. Elements consist of only one type of particle. When two or
more elements combine, they form compounds. The smallest particle of a compound
is a MOLECULE. Thus, copper is an element composed of Cu atoms whereas sodium
chloride is a compound composed of Na⁺Cl⁻ molecule.