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Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642)

 

Galileo Galilei, commonly known as Galileo, was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the “father of modern observational astronomy”, the “father of modern physics”, the “father of science”, and “the Father of Modern Science”. According to Stephen Hawking, “Galileo, perhaps more than any other single person, was responsible for the birth of modern science”.

 

His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons in his honour), and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments.

 

Galileo’s championing of heliocentrism was controversial within his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system. He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism due to the absence of an observed stellar parallax. The matter was investigated by the Roman Inquisition in 1615, and they concluded that it could only be supported as a possibility, not as an established fact. Galileo later defended his views in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, which appeared to attack pope Urban VIII and thus alienated him and the Jesuits, who had both supported Galileo up until this point. He was tried by the Inquisition, found “vehemently suspect of heresy”, forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest. It was while Galileo was under house arrest that he wrote one of his finest works, Two New Sciences. Here he summarized the work he had done some forty years earlier, on the two sciences now called kinematics and strength of materials.The Galileo Galilei

Sources of Energy

Good Source of Energy:

Good source of energy should have following qualities:

 1. Optimum heat production per unit of volume/mass used

 2. Easy to transport

 3. Least Polluting

 4. Economical.

 Earlier coal was used to run trains, but given its bulk it was difficult to transport. Hence now world over trains are run on either diesel or electricity. This example shows how petroleum is better against coal on all the above parameters.

 Conventional Sources of Energy

 Fossil Fuel: Plants and animals which were buried under the earth millions of years ago, have transformed into petroleum because of high heat and high pressure in the inner layers of earth. As petroleum is made from fossilized plants and animals that is why this is called as fossil fuel. Petroleum is refined into huge refineries to produce various fuels like petrol and diesel. Petroleum requires low temperature to catch fire, is easy to transport and is affordable to the masses. Hence, it is one of the widely used fuel. Coal is also made of plant fossils. Nowadays coal is primarily used in thermal power plants to generate electricity.

 Hydro-energy: Water is very powerful. Its power is harnessed by building dams, where water’s potential energy is used to run dynamo to produce electrical energy.

 Steam: Coal is used to heat water to generate steam. Earlier steam’s power was used to run train engines. At present steam is used to run dynamo to produce electricity.

 Bio-Mass: Cow dung and plant residues are left to decompose in a huge tank. The decomposition results in production of methane gas, which is used as fuel.

 Nuclear Energy: Fission of an atom creates huge amount of energy. This property is used to produce energy in nuclear power plants.

Risks and Ecological Problems of Conventional Energy:

 1. Fossil fuel is also called as non-renewable energy resource. Fossil take millions of years to get converted into energy source. The speed at which humankind is using these resources, will extinguish all fossil fuel sources on earth. Moreover, they produce CO2 and other pollutants which are harmful for our environment.

 2. Most of the major rivers are past their prime, so their water reservoir is about to finish. High dams often cause massive earthquakes.

 3. Nuclear power plants always carry the risk of leaking harmful radiation into the environment.

 Non-Conventional or Renewable Energy Resources:

 Risks associated with conventional energy sources have forced scientists world over to think of finding non-polluting and renewable energy sources. Some of them are as follows:

 Wind Energy: Wind’s power is being used to run windmills to produce energy. They are non-polluting and wind cannot be finished.

Solar Energy: Sun is the main source of energy for all life forms on this earth. Solar panels are being used to trap sun’s heat energy to convert it into electrical energy. At present they are very costly, but further research will make solar energy affordable in near future.

 Bio-Diesel: Some wild plants like Jathropa is now being cultivated to produce oil, which is being used as bio-diesel. Drawback of this is the fear of agricultural land being shifted for Jathropa plantations. This is now being blamed for rising food prices around the world.

 Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Hydrogen is available in abundance in the environment. When hydrogen is combined with oxygen, energy is produce and the byproduct of such reaction is water. Research is going on for this source of energy on a large scale. This will be the safest, since the byproduct water is non-polluting for environment.

 Tidal Energy: Tides come with great force. In some countries dams are built and dynamo is placed near small opening in the dam. When tide comes it helps turn the dynamo, which in turn produces electrical energy.

 Wave Energy: High hollow tubes are built near seashore. When a wave comes, it pushes the air up inside the tube with great force. This air helps run the dynamo.

 Geothermic Energy: Inside of earth is filled with molten lava, which turns underground water into vapour. In certain countries turbines are placed strategically to harness the energy of steam from underground water reservoir.

Most of the renewable energy resources are still in experimental stage. Wind energy is somewhat developed compared to others. Hopefully all these research will bring great relief to the mankind.

Work, power and energy

The concept of energy is central to physics, as many
times the analysis of a system’s motion involves understanding how energy is
changing. The change in energy is known as work, and the work done over a given
period of time is known as power.

Energy is defined as the ability to do
work. Physicists classify energy into several types: kinetic, potential, heat,
sound, radiant energy (e.g. light) and electrical, chemical and nuclear energy.

Kinetic energy is possessed by a
moving object by virtue of its motion. It equals the work done to
accelerate the object to a particular velocity or bring a moving object to
rest. Then two principal forms of kinetic energy are known as translational and
rotational. The first is due to motion in straight line while the second is due
to motion in a circle.

Potential energy is due to the
position of an object. It is not apparent until released. Two common types are gravitational
potential energy
and elastic potential energy. An object gains
gravitational potential energy, as work is done to raise it against the force
of gravity. When the object falls, it gains kinetic energy but loses potential
energy. Elastic potential energy is gained as work is done to stretch or compress
an elastic object such as a spring.

This type converted into kinetic energy
when the spring is released and it regains its formal shape. An object
possesses heat, or thermal energy by virtue of its temperature. It is, in fact,
merely a form of kinetic energy, because the temperature of a substance depends
on the motion of its component atoms or molecules; the higher its temperature,
fester the molecules move. (Heat radiation is not, however classified as
thermal energy but as radiant energy; it comprises the infrared part of the electromagnetic
spectrum
). Radiant energy consists of electromagnetic radiation and
includes radio waves, visible light, ultraviolet and infrared radiation and
X-rays.

Radiant energy is emitted when electrons
within atoms fall from a higher to lower energy level and release the excess
energy as radiation. Sound energy consists of moving waves of pressure
in a medium such as air, water or metal. They consist of vibrations in the
molecules of the medium, and sound can therefore be regarded as special form of
kinetic energy.

Matter that has gained or lost some
electric charge has electrical energy. It is a form of electrostatic
potential energy. The movement of charges constitutes an electric current,
which flows between two objects at different potentials when they are joined by
a conductor, because the charges move from one object to the other object until
an equal potential is restored to each. Chemical energy is possessed by
substances that undergo a chemical reaction, such as combustion. It is stored
in the chemical bonds between the atoms that make up the molecules of a
substance.

During 1 reaction, the atoms of the
reactants rearrange themselves to form different molecules of the products. If
the products have less chemical energy than the reactants, energy is released
during the reaction (in the form of heat, light or electrical energy, as in a
battery). If on the other hand, the products have more chemical energy than the
reactants, then energy is absorbed and is to be supplied to make the reaction
possible. Nuclear energy is produced when the nuclei of atoms change, either by
splitting apart or joining together.

The splitting process is known as nuclear
fission
, the joining together as nuclear fusion. Such changes can be
accompanied by the release of enormous amount of energy in the form of heat,
light, and radioactivity. The resulting motion of the nuclei and particles also
cause an increase in the thermal and kinetic energy of its surroundings.

Work:

Work is done when a force makes an
object move. It is defined as the product of the force and the distance through
which the object moves. If the object moves in the same direction as that of
the force then work is multiple of magnitude” of the force and the
distance moved. But if the force acts in a different direction to the movement
of the object, then work done is equal to component of the force in the
direction of movement (which is less than the total force) multiplied by the
distance through which , the object moves. If a force acts in the opposite
direction to the motion (such as a force applied to slow down a moving object),
then work done is negative. Zero work is done when no motion results, as
happens, for example, when someone holds up an object without moving it. Work
is shown by the following equation. W = Fd cos0 Where W is the work done (in
Joules), F is the force applied (in N), d is the distance moved by the object
(in m) and 6 is the angle between the direction of movement and the direction
of the applied force.

Power:

In everyday language,
power means much the same thing as energy or work. However, in physics power is
the rate of doing work. Power is measured in watts, one watt being equivalent
to a rate of working of one joule per second. Thus, although it takes the same
amount of work to lift 10 kg through 10 m in 30 seconds as it does to do it in
60 seconds, it involves twice as much power to perform the task in the shorter
time. In another way, the amount of work that a machine can do depends both on
its power and on the length of time for which it operates The power of a
machine is given by: p= w/t Where P is the power (in W, watts), W is the work
done (in j), and t is the time taken (in s) to do the work.

 

Energy crisis faced by humanity

The consumption of energy is increasing day by day. More products are required to complete the needs for the functioning of more industries. The numbers of houses also are increasing. There is more demand for equipment and other luxury items. Electricity is highly essential to produce all these goods and for operating them. Electricity is must for operating machines that we used in our house also. This led to the consumption of more and more energy. But the availability of fuels like petroleum, coal, etc… is diminished day by day. Increased need for energy and the decrease in the availability is the cause of the energy crisis. This crisis cannot be allowed to continue. We have to find solution for this issue.

Suggestions to manage energy crisis

Every one of us should realize that electricity is one of the resources that should be conserved for the future. The use of CFL s will reduce the misuse of electricity a little bit. Bio-gas plants may establish to get energy for cooking and other such purpose. Solar appliances may help to reduce the consumption of electricity to some extent. Take care to switch off the electrical appliances soon after use. Keeping the television sets and computers in switch on position will also lead to energy loss. The defect of electrical appliances should be either rectified or if the defect cannot be rectified to replace them. Many such things may seem to be very silly. But if all the people are following these simple steps, it will help us to restrict the misuse of energy.

A law is enacted in India as “Energy conservation act” for the conservation of energy resources. It is aimed at the judicious use and conservation of energy.

For the conservation of energy:

  • Effective use of available energy resource.
  • Give importance to non-conventional sources of energy.
  • Use appliances that need very little energy for functioning.
  • Follow periodic maintenance for appliances.
  • Depend more on public transport and use of private vehicles to be reduced.
  • Use quality appliances.
  • Those who use gas stove, take care to prepare everything for cooking before lighting the stove.
  • Use pressure cooker.
  • Use bio-gas instead of LPG.

Today the need for energy is increasing. In order to conserve energy we should be careful. It is better to follow above steps.

Is this invention providing any positive vibe in human mind?

Atomic bombs are a threat to the world. Atom bomb nicknamed “Little Boy”
that exploded in Hiroshima exploded at an altitude of 580m. The atomic bomb employed
uranium 235 and war equivalent in power to approximately 15 kilotons of TNT gun
powder.

Hiroshima was a city at work. The
streets were filled. Children had reported to schools; it was a time when
direct exposure in the open was at its peak…then, at 8:14 AM a prolonged and
brilliant flash. Accompanying the flash of light was an instantaneous flash of
heat traveling with the speed of light…duration probably less than one-tenth of
a second, and its intensity sufficient to cause nearby things to burst into
flames as far as four thousand yards from the hypocenter, with temperatures
exceeding 1800 degrees Celsius…then a shock wave (Lie bow 24).

During the final stages of World War II in 1945, the United States
conducted two atomic bombings against the cities of Hiroshimaand
Nagasaki
in Japan, the
first on August 6, 1945 and the second on August 9, 1945. These two events are
the only use of nuclear weapons in war to date.

For six months before the atomic bombings, the United States intensely
fire-bombed 67 Japanese cities. Together with the United Kingdom and the Republic
of China, the United States called for a surrender of Japan in the Potsdam
Declaration on July 26, 1945. The Japanese government ignored this ultimatum.
By executive order of President Harry S. Truman, the U.S. dropped the nuclear
weapon “Little Boy” on the city of Hiroshima on Monday, August 6,
1945, followed by the detonation of “Fat Man” over Nagasaki on August
9.

Within the first two to four months of the bombings, the acute effects
killed 90,000–166,000 people in Hiroshima and 60,000–80,000 in Nagasaki, with
roughly half of the deaths in each city occurring on the first day. The
Hiroshima prefectural health department estimates that, of the people who died
on the day of the explosion, 60% died from flash or flame burns, 30% from
falling debris and 10% from other causes. During the following months, large
numbers died from the effect of burns, radiation sickness, and other injuries,
compounded by illness. In a US estimate of the total immediate and short term
cause of death, 15–20% died from radiation sickness, 20–30% from flash burns,
and 50–60% from other injuries, compounded by illness. In both cities, most of
the dead were civilians.

Six days after the detonation over Nagasaki, on August 15, Japan announced its
surrender to the Allied Powers, signing the Instrument of Surrender on
September 2, officially ending the Pacific War and therefore World War II, as Germany
had already signed its Instrument of Surrender on May 7, ending the war in
Europe. The bombings led, in part, to post-war Japan’s adopting Three
Non-Nuclear Principles, forbidding the nation from nuclear armament. The role
of the bombings in Japan’s surrender and the U.S.’s ethical justification for
them, as well as their strategic importance, is still debated.

Dropping the atomic bombs on Nagasaki
and Hiroshima brought an end to many years of destruction and debilitation.
Perhaps had the United States not taken such drastic matters, the war soon
would have ended on its own. Yet, despite such obliteration, at that time nuclear
bomb use seemed the appropriate, viable option. It was not until afterwards,
when it was too late, did the world learn of the devastating implications. And
while Japan prospered soon after, negative effects of the bombs linger, effects
that will never be covered despite concerted efforts. The absence of detecting
a statistically significant effect of radiation on the frequency of genetically
based birth defects should not be construed as evidence that mutations were not
induced by parental exposure to atomic radiation. Nor should we ignore the
proliferating psychological implications across the world. We have an
obligation to learn from this tragedy. We must continue to understand the
effects, conduct more studies, and most importantly, identify other means
through which to end world conflict.

So avoid the use of atomic weapons. It will affect not only the present
generation but also the coming generations. Stop war express peace

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Physics and technology

Physics and technology and society are related to each other. Physics is the knowledge of material universe that offers tremendous information. Technology transfers the knowledge of physics into practical shape for the general well-being of human race. The degree of impact of science, particularly physics, on the society can easily be seen through the following few technologies and scientific principles related to them. Airplane (Bernoulli’s theorem), Electromagnetic induction, Heat engine and refrigerator (Laws of thermodynamics), Nuclear reactor (Nuclear fission), Calculators and computers (Digital electronic circuits).

Scope and excitements of physics

 

The scope of physics means the extent or range of view. It is truly vast and wide. Classical physics deals with questions regarding motion and energy (macroscopic phenomena). It includes Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Acoustics, Electricity and Magnetism, Optics etc. here as modern physics concentrate on atomic, molecular and nuclear phenomena.

The study of physics is exciting in many ways. The application and exploitation of physics laws to make useful devices is one of its most interesting and exciting part. The beauty of physics is that we could explain various natural phenomena using few fundamental concepts.

By teenstudents Posted in physics

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